Transformers convert an AC system’s electrical power at one current or voltage into electrical power at a different current or voltage without using rotating parts. power transformers provide this critical function as components of electrical and electronic circuits. Besides the common application of stepping voltages up
or down, these magnetic components can also be used to provide isolation for impedance mismatch and other applications.
How Power Transformers Work
Understanding how power transformers work is key to understanding what transformers do. Transformers use magnetic coupling to transfer electrical power between AC circuits—they do not create their own electrical power. The transformer’s core offers a controlled path for the magnetic flux the transformer generates due to the current flowing across the coils.
A basic transformer’s primary components include the input and output connections, the coils, and the core.
Input and Output Connections
A transformer’s input side is known as the primary side as the primary electrical power which needs to be changed is connected on this side. The output side is commonly referred to as the power transformer’s secondary side. On this side, electrical power is transferred to the load. This incoming transferred electric power may be either decreased or increased depending on the load’s requirement.