Author Archives: Jonathan Wang

  1. How Do Common Mode Chokes Work?

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    Common Mode Choke
    A common mode choke is an electromagnetic component that blocks high frequencies by passing direct currents (DC) and alternating currents (AC) through an electrical circuit. The choke gets its name because it blocks or “chokes” high-frequency signals while low-frequency signals pass through.

    This blog will cover the various aspects of common mode chokes and address frequently asked questions about their functionality.

    What Are Common Mode Chokes?

    Common mode chokes suppress electromagnetic interference (EMI) and radiofrequency current (RFI) from a power supply. EMI and RFI interference pose serious problems for electronic equipment, especially with a power-line communication system. Because common mode chokes protect equipment from frequency interference, they’ve become essential in the industrial, electrical, data-processing, manufacturing, and telecommunication sectors.

    However, common mode chokes aren’t limited to just commercial applications. Many everyday consumer products have a common mode choke, including:

    • LCD panels
    • Power cables
    • USB drives
    • Computers and laptops
    • Monitors

    Controller area networks (CAN) and local area networks (LAN) also rely on chokes so they can function properly. A CAN is a robust system that connects multiple users through a microcontroller, without using a host computer. A LAN is a computer network that connects devices within a local area, typically an office building, school campus, or house. For both network types to operate efficiently, technicians must keep electromagnetic interference and electrostatic discharge at a minimum—which is why the common mode choke is so essential.

    How Do Common Mode Chokes Work?

    How Do Common Mode Chokes

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    A common mode choke has two wires wrapped around a ferrite or magnetic core. It functions by using two fundamental processes: steering the noise current in the same direction across both wires, while simultaneously generating a magnetic field with two or more windings. Combined, these two mechanics add flux and prevent frequency noise by blocking the common mode current.

    Within electrical circuits, electromagnetic interference can take the form of either differential mode noise or common mode noise. Differential mode noise occurs in closed-loop circuits where the current flows in the line and input sides run in opposite directions. In contrast, common mode noise occurs in circuits where the current flows in the line and input sides enter and exit in the same direction and return through a common ground. In both cases, the noise happens when the transmissions do not generate magnetic fields that are equal and/or sufficiently cancel or add together.

    In an ideal common mode choke, the differential mode current produces equal but opposite magnetic fields as it flows through the choke’s windings. In doing so, the fields effectively cancel each other out, resulting in no differential mode noise and no loss of differential mode signal quality. Similarly, the common mode current creates equal and in-phase magnetic fields. These add up together and enable the choke to impede and attenuate the current flow as needed.

    Common mode chokes have become more advanced and efficient in recent years. For example, new chokes contain crystalline cores, which are 8-10 times more effective than ferromagnetic and ferrite cores. These cores are also more compact and have a higher frequency range, reaching up to 300 Hz. Overall, EMI noise suppression increases when technicians use chokes with crystalline cores compared to traditional models.

    What Are the Advantages of Using Common Mode Chokes?

    There are numerous advantages to using a common mode choke in an electrical circuit, including:

    • Increased efficiency
    • High inductance
    • Low-EMI radiation
    • Blocked or suppressed high-frequency signals

    Compared to a differential choke, a common mode choke can operate at much higher currents and has a higher inductance value, thus keeping EMI radiation at a minimum. Common mode chokes also have an extensive frequency range and are sometimes the only inductor that can solve connections with a lot of noise. Although they are generally more expensive than other inductors, common mode chokes make up for the price difference with their functionality and reliability.

    Learn More About Common Mode Chokes at MPS Industries

    Common mode chokes are a necessity for any operating network or system. At MPS Industries, we manufacture common mode chokes as well as many other electromagnetic components for a broad range of industries and applications. If you want the best for your operating system, reach out to us today to learn more about electronic chokes or another product.

  2. Step-Up vs. Step-Down Transformers & How They Work

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    A transformer is an electrical component composed of two or more wire coils that transmit and convert electrical energy through electromagnetic induction. Transformers can increase or decrease electrical voltage by transferring energy from an input coil (known as the primary winding) to one or more outputs (secondary windings). These windings consist of a magnetic core circuit — typically made of iron — and wrapped inside a coil of conductive copper wire. 

    The number of times the wire wraps around the core dictates the electrical current’s strength as it passes through the transformer. Voltage transmitted between the primary and secondary windings will step up (increase) or step down (decrease) depending on the number of turnings on each winding. This blog will provide a clear definition of step-up and step-down transformers and how they function. 

    What is a Step-Up Transformer? How Does a Step-Up Transformer Work?

    Step-up transformers increase the voltage from the input to the output of the transformer. In this configuration, the primary winding features fewer turnings than the secondary winding. This greater number of windings produces a higher voltage in the secondary side, increasing the output voltage. Power companies rely heavily on step-up transformers to efficiently transfer electricity over long distances. The higher voltage supplied across power grids is then reduced to a safe, usable level by step-down transformers.

    What is a Step-Down Transformer? How Does a Step-Down Transformer Work?

    A step-down transformer decreases the voltage from input to output. With fewer turns on the secondary winding, the voltage from the primary winding decreases as it passes through the transformer. Step-down transformers create safe levels of alternating current (AC) for use in various products, such as televisions and voltage stabilizers, welding equipment, transmission lines, and adapters for electronics like cell phones. 

    Key Differences Between Step-Up and Step-Down Transformers

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    Step-Up vs. Step-Down Transformers & How They Work

    To summarize, step-up and step-down transformers operate under the same principles, but one increases electrical voltage while the other decreases it. The key differences include: 

    Voltage Increase vs. Voltage Decrease

    Step-up transformers increase voltage from 220v up to 11,000v or greater, while step-down transformers will decrease voltage from 220v to 110v, 24v, 20v, or lower. 

    Applications and Usage

    Power companies primarily use step-up transformers to increase the voltage for better energy transmission across the power grid. Step-down transformers take that voltage and reduce it to safer levels for use in household appliances, electronics, industrial equipment, and other applications. 

    Primary and Secondary Winding

    In a step-up transformer, the primary winding has fewer turns, while the secondary winding has more turns. This configuration causes the voltage to increase. In a step-down transformer, the secondary winding has few turns, and the primary winding has more, causing the voltage to decrease as it passes through the transformer.

    The primary winding of step-up transformers is often composed of thicker, insulated copper wire, and the secondary winding uses thinner wire of insulated copper. The opposite is true for step-down transformers, which use the thick insulated copper wire in the secondary winding instead. For both transformer types, the wire thickness is gauged based on the wire’s capacity and the intended current flow.

    Choose Step-Up & Step-Down Transformers at MPS Industries

    At MPS Industries, we pride ourselves on providing the highest quality transformers and other magnetic components for customers in automotive, military, industrial, medical, telecommunications, and more. As a leading manufacturer of specialty electronic components, including custom transformers, inductors, common mode chokes, current sensors, and power supplies, MPS is committed to meeting and exceeding customer expectations. Our rigorous quality management system reflects our commitment to quality. 

    In addition, we maintain numerous industry certifications, including: 

    To learn more about our step-up and step-down transformers or any other products, please visit our product portfolio. Our solutions include high efficiency 50 Hertz (Hz)/60 Hertz (Hz) power transformers – you can find them here.

    To see how we can help with your next project, please contact us or request a quote for your next project or reach out to our experts today.

  3. What Is the Difference Between a Balun and RF Transformer?

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    Baluns and RF transformers are two distinct types of transformers – while they share similarities, they have many key differences in terms of operational functions and characteristics. In this blog, we’ll overview these two transformer types and their distinctions.

    Balun Transformers

    Balun transformers are used to convert an unbalanced signal to a balanced signal and vice versa. Commonly used in telephone lines, transmitters, and more, baluns optimize the flow of AC signals and transform impedance between coaxial cable and balanced loads.

    RF Transformers

    RF transformers are used to match impedances, isolate DC currents between circuits, and perform current or voltage step-up or step-down.

    What’s the Difference Between Balun and RF Transformers?

    Baluns and RF transformers have many overlapping functions, properties, and fabrication methods. Some baluns can even be considered modified RF transformers. Although they can be easily mismatched, each of these transformers have unique characteristics and purposes that differentiate them. Baluns and RF transformers work to optimize interactions between circuits and signals; however, they operate in different ways to do so. Four Balun transformers on white background

    Baluns convert an unbalanced signal to a balanced signal, and they are commonly used in communications applications to allow for the best possible transmission. A balanced line, or signal pathway, needs two 180° out-of-phase signals within a transmission pathway, while unbalanced pathways consist of a single signal with a ground plane return path. One way to fabricate baluns is by properly configuring one grounded and one floating winding-based transformer with a delay line.

    RF transformers, on the other hand, use magnetic couplings between two or more circuits to isolate or transform current, voltage, or impedance amongst the coupled circuits. Commonly used in high frequency signal applications, RF transformers are typically composed of twisted-pair or coaxial transmission lines wound around a toroidal ferromagnetic core. However, they are also available in thin-film, thick-film, and planar varieties.

    Balun Transformers and RF Transformers at MPS Industries

    At MPS Industries, we specialize in high-quality magnetic components, including balun and RF transformers. Our products can withstand operating temperatures ranging from -40°C to 85°C and can handle frequencies ranging from 0.5 MHz to 2400 MHz. Our baluns and RF transformers are ideal for a variety of applications, including CATV, SET top boxes, and more. As optimal safety and performance are top priorities for our products and services, MPS upholds the following certifications:

    MPS serves multiple industries, including aerospace, automotive, consumer electronics, medical, military and defense, telecommunications, and more. We ensure optimal quality management, compliance with industry standards, and on-time delivery.

    Request a Quote or Contact Us

    To learn more about our baluns and RF transformers, browse our catalog today.

    For questions regarding our products and services, reach out to our team and we’ll be happy to help.

  4. The Complete Guide to Flyback Transformers

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    Flyback converter diagram screenshot

    When a power converter doesn’t require very high power – i.e. 200 watts or less – flyback converters are good choices due to their lower cost, decreased quantity of components, and simple design. Flyback converters are used in a variety of equipment, including televisions, LED lighting arrays, telecommunications, and industrial systems.

    One of the main components within a flyback converter design is the transformer. The primary distinguishing feature of a flyback transformer is a gapped core that holds energy from each input cycle.

    The energy stored in the transformer’s core allows it to efficiently increase or decrease the voltage as needed for equipment operation.

    How Does a Flyback Transformer Work?

    A flyback transformer circuit looks similar to other isolated transformers, and it uses many of the same components, including a switch, output rectifier or diode, and input and output capacitors. Unlike other isolated transformer designs, however, flyback transformers store energy within the core without the need for a separate output inductor. This highly efficient construction facilitates cost-effective power usage by ensuring circuit isolation and allowing both positive and negative output voltage.

    The Complete Guide to Flyback Transformers

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    The most common switch design for flyback converters is the metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET), which consists of three terminals that modify the intensity of and redirect electronic signals. Switches for flyback converters may also be composed of bipolar transistors, gallium nitride (GaN), or silicon carbide (SiC).

    When the switch is closed (or in the on position), current flows through the primary coil and gets stored in the core. When the switch is off, the current flows through the secondary coil and is transmitted to the output load. The output voltage is modified by adjusting duty cycles and turn ratios between the primary and secondary coils.

    Coupled Inductor

    The coils that transmit and store energy in a flyback transformer form a coupled inductor. The two coils are linked by mutual electromagnetic inductance—when energy flows into the primary coil, it creates a magnetic link and generates voltage in the second coil.

    Coupled inductors are used to modify voltage. They can also be used to isolate circuit components to enhance the efficiency of electrical flow. When the switch is on, energy flows into the primary winding and gets stored in the core. The stored magnetic flux flows into the secondary winding when the switch is turned off, and the energy is then distributed through a diode.

    Output Diode

    Current may be increased, decreased, or modified as it flows from the second coil. Diodes ensure that the current flows unidirectionally toward the output and keep the voltage as necessary to meet the needs of the application. Since current from the transformer can fluctuate based on the input voltage, the diode and output capacitor help to keep the outflow of current steady.

    Input and Output Capacitors

    Capacitors in flyback transformers can be installed on both the input and output ends of the current flow. They are used to store energy so that it can be released in controlled amounts. Input capacitors control the flow of energy into the primary coil, while output capacitors manage the output to ensure a smooth flow of energy at the desired voltage and current.

    Applications of Flyback Transformers

    Flyback transformers are highly efficient, compact, and cost-effective, which makes them ideal for numerous applications and industries. Some of these uses include:

    • DC-DC and AC-DC power supplies: Flyback transformers are used to facilitate the conversion of AC to DC and DC to DC in power supplies for a variety of devices that require current and voltage modification.
    • Televisions and computer monitors: The first flyback transformers were invented for use in televisions, and they continue to provide a reliable source of steady voltage for computer monitors, televisions, and other visual displays.
    • Aerospace components: The compact size, efficiency, and accuracy of flyback transformers make them perfect for use in electrical equipment found in aerospace applications.
    • Telecommunications equipment: Flyback power converters are often used for DC to DC power conversion in telecommunication systems.
    • LED lighting systems: Flyback transformers are used in LED drivers to regulate the output current from the power supply.
    • Capacitor and battery charging systems: Flyback transformers convert current and transmit energy in capacitor and battery chargers.
    • Converters and inverters: Since electrical converters and inverters operate at varying frequencies, flyback transformers adjust the voltage and current levels for a consistent power supply.
    • Industrial systems: A broad range of industrial equipment uses flyback transformers to enhance operational efficiency and improve the performance of electrical components.

    Advantages of Using Flyback Transformers

    Flyback transformers offer numerous advantages over other converters, including:

    • Circuit Isolation: A key benefit of flyback transformers is their circuit isolation, preventing electrical hazards and providing improved safety, particularly for those in the vicinity of high energy electrical systems.
    • Compact Size: The simple design of flyback transformers makes them smaller, lighter, and easier to install than comparable transformers – meaning they are likely to be a better fit within your overall electrical system.
    • Cost-Effectiveness: Flyback transformers are generally about the same investment as other transformers. However, flyback converters – of which flyback transformers are a key component – are typically less expensive than comparable converters, since they are made up of fewer components. This is important to keep in mind if you are considering flyback transformers and their application within flyback converters.
    • Convenience: You can use flyback transformers to isolate and manipulate multiple output voltages from one control.

    Considerations When Designing a Flyback Transformer

    Flyback transformers are available in numerous designs and configurations. Before attempting to select or design an appropriate flyback transformer for your needs, gather the following data about your application to present to your component provider:

    • Maximum size and weight requirements
    • Switching frequency
    • Max duty cycle
    • Mounting type: surface mount, through-hole, etc.
    • Input voltage
    • Power and Output voltage (load)

    Quality Flyback Transformers at MPS Industries

    MPS Industries, Inc. is proud to offer an extensive range of quality electronic components for our customers in a wide range of industries, from aerospace and automotive to military, telecommunications, and renewable energy. We specialize in custom-manufactured inductors, power supplies, current sensors, and transformers. Our extensive experience in circuit design and engineering allows us to create unique electronic components to meet the most stringent industry standards and specifications.

    Request a Quote or Contact Us

    To learn more, visit our Flyback Transformers product page, or contact our experts to discuss your magnetic component needs.

  5. Switch Mode Power Supply Transformers FAQ

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    MPS Industries is a U.S.-based magnetic components manufacturer specializing in the design of custom transformers, inductors, common mode chokes, current sensors and many other custom magnetics. 

    Switch mode power supply (SMPS) transformers use different switching topologies, transferring the required power from input to output in the electronic systems. Here, we have answered some of the most frequently asked questions regarding this unique and efficient transformer technology. 

    How Does a Switch Mode Power Transformer Work?

    Switch mode transformers are used within switch mode power supplies to provide power to a range of commercial and industrial electronic systems. These transformers are highly efficient at converting alternating current (AC) main power to direct current (DC) output voltage. The AC main power is filtered through a capacitor when power is switched on, allowing it to be converted from AC voltage with rectifiers to unregulated DC voltage. Using a regulator, the switch mode transformer then converts this unregulated DC voltage into regulated DC output voltage at different voltage levels.

    What Are the Common Applications of a Switch Mode Power Transformer?

    Most modern electronic applications rely on power supplies that can very efficiently convert low-frequency main AC power to the well-regulated DC voltage required by the circuit. SMPS transformers are often preferred due to their ability to provide a tightly regulated output voltage. A few specific applications of these transformers include:

    • Medical devices
    • Communication devices
    • Commercial power supplies
    • Security systems
    • Support supplies for PLCs
    • Audiovisual products

    What Makes Switch Mode Power Transformers Different From Other Transformers?

    By internally switching the transistor between an on and off state, switch mode transformers can minimize a power supply’s energy dissipation, resulting in a higher efficiency with less heat produced when compared with those transformers used in linear power supplies. Linear power supplies typically require large power transformers to step up or down voltage before it can be applied to the regulator circuit. In general, linear power transformers tend to be bulkier and substantially less efficient than switch mode power transformers which are smaller and compact given their higher operating frequency.

    What Are the Different Switch Mode Power Transformer Topologies?

    The topology of a switch mode power transformer refers to its specific circuit configuration. A few of the basic topologies used in power design include:

    • Flyback: The flyback is an isolated topology in which energy accumulated and stored during the “on” state of the switch is transferred to the output during the “off” state. This is one of the simplest and lowest-cost isolated topologies and is best suited for lower-power applications.
    • Forward converter: Rather than storing energy in the core, forward converters directly transfer energy between the primary secondary sides. Like flybacks, forward converters are best suited for lower power applications.
    • Push-pull: The push-pull topology is basically a forward converter with a dual-drive winding, making it much more efficient at utilizing the core of the transformer when compared with flybacks or simple forward converters.
    • Half-bridge: The half-bridge is a type of forward converter topology. Half-bridge topologies are designed so that the load current can flow in two directions.
    • Full-bridge: The full-bridge topology is essentially two half bridges. It has similar switch ratings as the half-bridge but provides twice the output power.
    • Gate-drive: Gate-drive transformers are used in switch mode power supplies to control circuit timing through the delivery of electrical pulses.

    What Are the Advantages of Using a Switch Mode Power Transformer?

    When it comes to modern electronic applications, SMPS transformers offer several clear advantages over alternative methods of converting DC power. These include:

    • Higher efficiency: The regulator’s switching action allows it to be in either on or off mode. Because of this, energy dissipation is minimal and power can be used extremely efficiently.
    • Lighter weight: Compared with linear transformers, switch mode power transformers are much smaller and lighter. This is possible due to their high operating frequency and highly efficient power usage.
    • Greater flexibility: Unlike linear transformers, switch mode power transformers are capable of creating high conversions in both voltage-boosting and voltage step-down applications.

    What Are the Design Considerations for an SMPS Transformer? 

    When designing an SMPS transformer, it is important to consider the following parameters:

    • Input and output voltage
    • Output power or current
    • Switching frequency
    • Operating mode
    • Maximum duty cycle of the IC
    • Safety standards
    • Temperature requirements
    • Size requirements

    Three primary design considerations are core shape, type, and size, all of which should be chosen based on your application’s power requirements, switching topology, and anticipated switching frequency. Certain core materials have properties that make them better suited for higher-frequency applications. It is also important to make sure the components and wiring do not go above their rated temperatures, as this will affect overall circuit reliability. Industry-specific safety requirements should also be kept in mind to ensure the compliance of your design with relevant regulatory standards.

    Are There Any Transformer Design Considerations for IC Chips?

    Generally, our customers’ design engineers will start with an integrated circuit/IC chip, which typically has some kind of reference design with suggestions on transformers and other components to be used with the chip. They can either start with the reference design and modify it to suit their application, or they might opt for their own custom design using the chip.  

    We currently work with several IC companies and are on some reference designs already. However, we can definitely work with the customer to supply transformers per their reference designs or create a custom design to meet their application needs.

    Contact MPS Industries for SMPS Transformer Guidance

    At MPS Industries, our electrical engineering team regularly provides magnetic component guidance and design assistance for even the most complex industrial systems. Whether you require minor modifications to a standard product or a complete custom design from scratch, our engineers possess the insight and resources to meet your exact specifications. We uphold a strong quality management system to make sure that every product we deliver meets or exceeds customer expectations and complies with all relevant industry standards.

    To learn more about SMPS transformers at MPS, check out the links below: 

    Contact us today about any of our magnetic component solutions or services!

  6. What is a Toroidal Power Transformer?

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    Transformers are electrical devices that rely on electromagnetic induction to transfer energy from one circuit to another. Among the most common types of transformers are power transformers, which are generally used in electrical systems to step up (i.e., increase) or step down (i.e., decrease) voltage levels between circuits. These transformers are available in several variations, each of which offers different performance characteristics. 

    The following article focuses on toroidal power transformers, including outlining what they are, what advantages they offer, what industrial applications in which they are used, and how they differ from standard transformers. 

    What Is a Toroidal Transformer?

    Similar to other transformers, a toroidal transformer operates under the principles of electromagnetic induction. It features a toroidal core surrounded by the primary and secondary windings. As current flows through the primary windings, it produces an electromagnetic force (EMF) that generates current in the secondary windings; this process allows power to be transferred from the primary coil to the secondary coil. 

    Advantages of Toroidal Power Transformers

    Compared to other types of power transformers, toroidal power transformers offer a number of advantages, such as:

    • Greater efficiency. The unique shape of these transformers accommodates the use of shorter coils, which allows for lower loss levels and, consequently, higher efficiency in the system.
    • Lower operating temperatures. As toroidal transformers are more efficient than other power transformers, they produce less heat during operations, which translates to lower operating temperatures. This quality, in turn, reduces the need for cooling devices. 
    • Smaller footprint. The coils in toroidal transformers can touch and overlap without interfering with performance, which allows these transformers to be more compact than conventional power transformers. 
    • Quieter operation. These transformers produce less mechanical hum than EI transformers. 
    • Better protection against EMI. The primary and secondary coils covering the core act as a shield against the magnetic field produced, which protects nearby sensitive electronic equipment from being affected by the transformer during operations. 

    Applications of Toroidal Power Transformers

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    What is a Toroidal Power Transformer

    Toroidal power transformers find application in a wide range of industries, including: 

    • Aerospace
    • Audio/visual equipment
    • Automotive
    • Consumer goods
    • Lighting
    • Medical 
    • Military and defense
    • Power generation and distribution
    • Renewable energy
    • Security
    • Telecommunications

    Due to their compact size, they are often used in electronic devices and systems such as computers. Their quiet operation makes them well-suited for use in amplifiers, audio equipment, televisions, and other audio/visual systems. These qualities, combined with their high efficiency and reliability, are among some of the reasons why they are regularly used in medical equipment. 

    Toroidal Transformers vs. Conventional Transformers

    The main difference between toroidal transformers and conventional transformers is the core. 

    • Toroidal transformers have a donut-shaped core that is surrounded by the primary and secondary windings. This design allows for a more efficient transfer of power and more compact construction. Some of the other advantages these transformers have over conventional transformers include quieter operation and greater construction flexibility.
    • Conventional transformers—also knowns as EI transformers—have a core consisting of E-shape steel sheets and I-shaped caps. Compared to toroidal transformers, they come at a much lower price point. 

    Contact the Transformer Experts at MPS Industries Today

    MPS Industries is an ISO 9001:2015 certified manufacturer of standard and custom transformers. We offer toroidal transformers that accommodate between 50 to 30,000 VAC power and operating temperatures up to 70° C. Our products are made in the USA and comply with the following standards: RoHS, REACH, CE, CSA, UL, and ETL. To find out more about our toroidal transformers or other electronic products, contact us today.


  7. Magnetic Components 101: Transformers, Inductors, and Chokes

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    magnetic components
    Magnetic components are passive elements that rely on an internal magnetic field to alter electrical current. They play a critical role in many electronic devices, equipment, and systems. Some of the industries that often make use of them include:

    • Appliances: Magnetic components play critical roles in both common household and advanced industrial appliances (ranging from refrigerators to telecommunication devices), particularly when it comes to converting AC to DC as well as power line filtering.
    • Automotive: Magnetics are found throughout cars, regulating voltage in power supplies for climate control, dashboard display, interior and exterior lighting, and other systems. The advent of electric and hybrid vehicles has increased the range of applications for magnetics in the automotive industry.
    • Communications: Magnetic components are used for both low-voltage and high-voltage communication systems, such as radio frequency circuitry in cellphones or conductors in high-voltage transmission systems. Larger transformers are also critical to the telecom infrastructure.
    • Computers and Electronics: Many types of magnetics components are found in computers and other personal electronic devices. By selecting optimal components, manufacturers can increase power efficiency, and in certain cases can decrease size.
    • Defense: The defense industry’s demand for magnetic components has expanded as surveillance equipment, transport vehicles, and weaponry have become more and more advanced.

    In the following article, we provide an overview of magnetic components and the three main types employed by industry professionals—i.e., transformers, inductors, and chokes. Additionally, we cover the product offerings available at MPS Industries.

    What Are Magnetic Components?

    Depending on their configuration and function, magnetic components can be categorized into the following groups:

    • Low-Frequency Magnetic Components: These elements are generally designed for use in applications involving frequencies between 50 to 500 Hz and voltages of 220 to 240 VAC. Typical applications include conveyor systems, HVAC systems, line filtering, motor drives, and uninterrupted power supplies (UPSs).
    • High-Frequency Magnetic Components: These elements are designed for frequencies in the kilohertz (kHz) or Megahertz (MHz) range. Typical applications include computers, communication systems, electric cars, and mobile device charging systems.
    • Isolated Magnetic Components: These elements protect users from electrical shock in applications where incidental contact may occur. Typical applications include laptop power supplies and wearable medical devices.
    • Non-Isolated Magnetic Components: These elements reduce noise or briefly store energy for use in future operations. They are generally used in applications where human contact is less of a concern.

    They can also be classified into two main product groups: transformers and inductors. Transformers change the voltage level by stepping it up or down, while inductors introduce resistance to the circuit and store current.

    Both products rely on the property of electromagnetic inductance, which was discovered by English scientist and inventor Michael Faraday and American scientist Joseph Henry separately but concurrently in the 1830s. Faraday’s Law, as it is often called, describes how changes in the magnetic environment of a circuit result in the generation of electrical current and, conversely, how an electrical current generates a magnetic field.

    Below we provide a more detailed description of transformers and inductors, outlining their function, basic design and construction elements, types available, and key design and selection considerations.


    Transformers consist of two or more coils of wire that allow for the transference of electrical energy when subjected to a changing magnetic field. They are primarily used when the power within a circuit must be transferred between two different levels. In addition to stepping the voltage up or down, they also function as filters or stabilizers for the circuit’s voltage levels.

    yellow and grey transformer

    Types of Transformers

    These magnetic components are available in many designs and configurations, each of which is suitable for different use cases. Some of the most common include:

    • Single-Phase Transformers: Single-phase transformers contain two windings, a primary and secondary one. By connecting the two components, they enable the transfer of AC power from one circuit to another.
    • Three-Phase Transformers: Three-phase transformers consist of primary and secondary windings that each contain three separate but connected windings. They are generally used for the generation, transmission, and distribution of electrical power in industrial applications.
    • Step-Up/Step-Down Transformers: These transformers increase (step-up) or decrease (step-down) the voltage as current flows through them.
    • Power Transformers: Power transformers are used for the transmission of higher voltages within and between systems.
    • Current transformers: Current transformers are used for measuring or monitoring current for control and/or load centers. They are implemented for current measurement, electrical load monitoring, energy and sub-metering products, network equipment, instruments and sensors, control systems, and green initiatives.
    • Isolation Transformers: Isolation transformers regulate high current and voltage levels by separating the primary and secondary windings. This design protects any devices connected to the secondary windings from overload damage. Current transformers and potential (i.e., voltage) transformers are both variations on this design.

    Design and Selection Considerations

    When designing and selecting a transformer, there are many factors to keep in mind to ensure it functions as intended. Some of the key considerations include:

    • Winding Design: The way a winding is coiled around the transformer core significantly affects the component’s efficiency and durability, as well as the resulting transformer type (i.e. flyback, push-pull). There are two types of electrical coils: primary and secondary windings. In a nutshell, primary windings receive power while secondary windings deliver the power. These windings are not electrically connected but share a common core, enabling the transfer of electrical power between the two coils. Voltage and current are directly correlated to the number of the primary and secondary coils’ turns around the core.
    • Material: Similar to the design of the winding, the material used for the construction of the winding and insulation can affect the performance of a transformer. Typical winding materials include aluminum and copper, and typical insulation materials include meta-aramid. The material makeup of the transformer core itself enables a successful pathway for magnetic flux. As well, the extent to which a magnetic field can be increased by the core is dependent on the magnetic permeability of the transformer core material. Examples of common transformer core materials include:
      • Amorphous Steel Core: ideal for high temperature, high efficiency, or medium frequency transformers; one of the most commonly implemented transformer core materials.
      • Solid Iron Core: This core material is able to produce high magnetic fields without iron saturation; DC applications are typical use cases.
      • Laminated Silicon Steel/Iron Core: Laminated cores are created by thin sheets of stacked silicon steel or iron, which are coated with an insulating layer to prevent losses of energy via eddy currents in alternating current (AC) components.
    • Size: The size of transformer needed depends on the expected load capacity required. Other factors that influence size include future growth expectations, space constraints, and budget limits.


    blue and yellow inductor

    Inductors consist of a wire coil or loop wound around a metal core. They allow for the storage of energy and the introduction of resistance to a circuit. As current runs through the circuit, the element stores it in the form of magnetic energy. When the current flow ceases, the magnetic field generates voltage in the conductor.

    Types of Inductors

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    Similar to transformers, inductors are available in many variations to suit different applications, such as:

    • Bobbin-Based Inductors: As suggested by the name, these inductors are wound on cylindrical bobbins. They are generally employed in printed circuit boards (PCBs).
    • Toroidal Inductors: These inductors have toroidal (ring- or donut-shaped) cores.They typically come at a smaller size and lighter weight – about half the weight and size of more conventional inductors – making them a great choice for smaller power supplies. Toroidal inductors offer stronger magnetic fields and lower electromagnetic interference (EMI), making them ideal for higher-frequency and lower-power applications.
    • Multi-Layer Inductors: These inductors feature multiple winding layers, which increase inductance and capacitance capabilities. Multi-layer inductors are commonly found in DC/DC power conversion circuitry within smartphones and wearable devices, for example. The inherent structure of these inductors offers space and cost reductions for the circuit system overall.
    • Film Inductors: These thin inductors are used for DC to DC converters in mobile electronic devices, such as smartphones.
    • Variable Inductors: Variable inductors allow the magnetic core to be moved, allowing the circuit to “tune” between frequencies.

    Design and Selection Considerations

    When designing and selecting an inductor, industry professionals rely on some of the same considerations as those for transformers, such as winding design, size, and material. Other factors to keep in mind include series resistance and interference from other devices, both of which may cause operational issues if left unaccounted.


    Chokes consist of insulated wire coiled around a magnetic core. They are a type of specialized inductor designed to block high-frequency alternating current (AC) while allowing low-frequency direct current (DC) to pass through unhindered, minimizing the risk of noise interfering with system performance.

    Types of Chokes

    Chokes are available in two variations:

    • Common Mode Chokes: These chokes feature two or more coils on a single magnetic core, with each winding positioned in series with the conductors. They are effective at blocking noise in applications involving two conductors with currents that are equal but flowing in opposite directions.
    • Differential Mode Chokes: These chokes operate similarly to common mode chokes but generate flux in the opposite direction to cancel noise-causing current. They are ideal for use in applications that require noise filtration from a single conductor.

    Design and Selection Considerations

    When designing and selecting a choke, key considerations include impedance, frequency, and current requirements. These factors influence the optimal winding design, core, winding, and insulation materials, and mounting method for a given application.

    Contact the Magnetic Component Experts at MPS Industries Today

    MPS facilities

    At MPS Industries, we offer an extensive selection of magnetic components suitable for use in a  wide range of electronic devices. Our product portfolio includes transformers, inducers, and common mode chokes. By partnering with us for their magnetic component needs, our customers benefit from our:

    • Broad product lines
    • Custom design capabilities
    • Domestic design and manufacturing support services
    • Commitment to superior product and service quality

    For additional information about our magnetic component offerings, contact us today.

  8. The Role of Forward Converters

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    Forward converters—also referred to as forward-converter transformers or transformers for forward-mode topology—are used in DC-DC conversion applications to provide voltage transformation and circuit isolation. They increase or decrease the voltage levels of DC input, depending on the duty cycle and number of windings. Compared to alternative topologies, they offer greater design simplicity, multiple isolated output potential, and ease of use.

    The following article provides an overview of forward converters, outlining the types available, how they compare to flyback transformers, and typical end applications.

    Types of Forward Converters

    There are three main types of forward converters available:

    Active Clamp Forward Converters

    Active clamp forward converters have compound gates that move quickly to reduce switching losses during power conversion cycles. When voltage passes through the primary transformer coil, energy immediately transfers from the primary component to the secondary component, prompting current to pass from the output unit to the connected load.

    Both forward converters and flyback converters can integrate clamp mechanisms in their designs—forward converters employ active clamps, while flyback converters utilize resistor-capacitor-diode (RCD) clamps. Despite similarities in the terminology, these clamps function and perform differently. For example, active clamps reclaim a large majority of leakage energy and recover almost all magnetizing energy. They also experience smaller energy losses during zero voltage switching and no voltage spike when turned off.

    Fig.1: Typical Active Clamp Forward Converter Circuit Diagram

    Fig.1: Typical Active Clamp Forward Converter Circuit Diagram

    Fig.2: Current Flow w/ Q1 Closed, Q2 Open

    Fig.2: Current Flow w/ Q1 Closed, Q2 Open

    Fig.3: Current Flow w/ Q2 Closed, Q1 Open

    Fig.3: Current Flow w/ Q2 Closed, Q1 Open

    Single Switch Forward Converters

    Employing the design principles used in buck topology, single switch forward converters focus on providing galvanic isolation in applications involving power levels of less than 200 watts. In these converters, closing the active switch connects the supply to the primary, which prompts the rectifier to conduct the current and pass it through the output inductor to the connected load. Until the switch reopens, the current rises linearly. Once the switch is opened, any energy stored in the inductor transfers directly to the load through the secondary diode.

    Fig.4: Typical Single Switch Forward Converter Circuit Diagram

    Fig.4: Typical Single Switch Forward Converter Circuit Diagram

    Fig.5: Current Flow w/ Switch Closed

    Fig.5: Current Flow w/ Switch Closed

    Fig.6: Current Flow w/ Switch Open

    Fig.6: Current Flow w/ Switch Open

    Two Switch Forward Converters

    As the name suggests, two switch forward converters feature two switches that open and close together when prompted. Closing both switches allows energy to transfer from the primary into the secondary. Within the secondary, a tertiary diode conducts energy into the output inductor and the load. Once the switches are opened, energy flowing the tertiary and quaternary diodes flows back into the source. Compared to the single switch topology, the two-switch topology does not require the use of a snubber circuit or demagnetizing winding.

    Fig.7: Typical 2-Switch Forward Converter Circuit Diagram

    Fig.7: Typical 2-Switch Forward Converter Circuit Diagram

    Fig.8: Current Flow w/ BOTH Switches Closed

    Fig.8: Current Flow w/ BOTH Switches Closed

    Fig.9: Current Flow w/ BOTH Switches Open

    Fig.9: Current Flow w/ BOTH Switches Open

    Differences Between Forward Converters and Flyback Transformers

    While forward converters and flyback transformers may look similar, there are several key differences between them. For example:

    • Forward converters use transformers to transfer energy, while flyback transformers store energy.
    • Forward converters feature a more complex circuit topology as compared to that of flyback transformers.
    • Forward converters are suitable for applications that require greater energy efficiency and higher power outputs (100 to 200 watts), while flyback transformers are suitable for power outputs up to 120 watts.

    Typical Applications of Forward Converters                              

    Fig. 10: Typical Flyback Converter Circuit Diagram

    Fig. 10: Typical Flyback Converter Circuit Diagram

    The Role of Forward ConvertersForward converters find use in the power supplies of a wide range of equipment and systems, including those for the following industries:

    • For the military: Military manufacturers use forward converters in unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), stun guns, dipole antennas, and more.
    • For aerospace: Aircraft have forward converters in their lighting systems, entertainment devices, searchlights, and cameras.
    • For renewable energy (i.e., solar power): Forward converters help prepare solar energy for storage and distribution by standardizing the output voltages. These components are in inverters and grid monitors in solar panel systems and built into electrical drive systems, storage inverters, and battery chargers.
    • For computers: Forward converters can be found in a variety of powered computer equipment, including laser printers, laptops, and IP routers. Home entertainment systems with set-top boxes that receive digital television broadcasts also use them.

    Forward Converter Solutions From MPS Industries

    Forward converters allow industry professionals to transform DC input to higher or lower voltage levels to suit the output demands of the end application. Compared to flyback transformers, they are more efficient and accommodate higher power outputs. Available in several different designs, they can meet a variety of power requirements and restrictions.

    At MPS Industries, one of our core specialties is the production of forward transfers and output inductors for forward converters. By working closely with customers, our expert team designs and delivers quality magnetic solutions tailored to their exact needs.

    We’re proud to serve the following industries:

    For additional information about our forward converters or our other products and services, contact us today.